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Phenol, also known as carbolic acid and phenic acid, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5OH.  Pure phenol consists of white or clear acicular crystals. At 41 degrees Celsius, phenol congeals into a solid that can be liquefied by mixing a very small amount of water (2 parts water: 23 parts phenol). On exposure to air and light, phenol assumes a pinkish or reddish discoloration; this discoloration is accelerated by the presence of alkalinity or impurities. Phenol has a characteristic sweet, medicinal, or tar-like odour.  It is mildly acidic, but requires careful handling due to its propensity to cause burns. Phenol was first extracted from coal tar, but today is produced on a large scale (about 7 billion kg/year) using a series of industrial processes starting with crude oil.