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Bromoform (CHBr3) is a pale yellowish liquid with a sweet odour similar to chloroform. It is soluble in about 800 parts water and is miscible with alcohol, benzene, chloroform, ether, petroleum ether, acetone, and oils. It is also non-flammable and readily evaporates into the air. Bromoform is produced naturally by phytoplankton and seaweeds in the ocean and this is thought to be the predominant source to the environment. However, locally significant amounts of bromoform enter the environment formed as disinfection by-products known as the trihalomethanes when chlorine is added to drinking water to kill bacteria. [1,2]
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has released a draft guideline on the quality requirements for medical devices in drug-device combinations for public consultation. Drug-device combinations are medical devices in human medicines that include a device for the administration, dosing or use of the medicine. The guideline addresses the new obligations in the EU Medical Devices Regulation (MDR 2017/745), in particular the requirements under Article 117. Article 117 foresees that a marketing authorisation application will include a CE certificate or declaration of conformity for the device or, in certain cases, an opinion from a notified body. In the draft guideline it is specified which information about the device that needs to be submitted as part of an initial marketing authorisation application. Comments on the public consultation must be submitted by 31 August 2019. Further information is available at: Draft guideline: Quality requirements for drug-device combinations.
Anuradhi Liyanapathiranage is passionate about sustainability and protecting the environment through science. A University of Georgia doctoral student in the College of Family and Consumer Sciences' department of textiles, merchandising and interiors, the Sri Lanka native is researching and helping develop an environmentally friendly textile dyeing method. Traditional dyeing methods involve a dye bath that requires massive amounts of water, much of it released as toxic wastewater that can damage the environment and be costly to treat. Liyanapathiranage, along with FACS faculty members Sergiy Minko and Suraj Sharma, is researching a better approach using nanocellulose as a carrier of textile dyes that significantly reduces the amount of wastewater and toxic chemicals. Through a process of homogenisation, cellulose, a readily available natural polymer found in the cell wall of green plants, is converted into a hydrogel consisting of nanocellulose fibres. In this method, researchers dye the nanocellulose hydrogel instead of dyeing the fabric. Compared to cotton fibres, nanocellulose fibres have more surface area with high reactivity, allowing for more efficient attachment of dye molecules. "My aspiration in life is to make social transformation through science," Liyanapathiranage said. "Over the past decades, the development of material science has contributed to advances in electronics, nanotechnology and sustainable technologies. I've embraced research that enables advancing sustainable materials and sustainable technologies for industry." Using this technique, UGA researchers have been able to reduce the water needed to dye 1 kilogram of cotton from 19 litres to just 1.9 litres. Recent analysis also indicates a 60% reduction of dye discharge. Liyanapathiranage and the FACS team said they're excited about the potential impact the research can have on the textile industry. They are now looking at ways to upscale the technology to make it applicable to the industrial production process. UGA is the ideal place to make it happen, Liyanapathiranage said, based on its reputation for ground-breaking research bringing new products to market. "With the emerging trends on environmental pollution and population growth, sustainable technologies are the key to accomplishing viable socio-economic development," she said. "I'm confident that our research projects will have a direct contribution to sustainable development, and that we will able to make a remarkable impact on the world with our innovations and discoveries."